Prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Chicken Eggs Collected from Different Poultry Farms in Awka, Anambra State of Nigeria

  • ABANA CHIOMA C Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria
  • NWAJIOBI FAVOUR O Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria
Keywords: Salmonella Enteritidis, Prevalence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Resistance, Plasmid


This study examined the determination of the prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in table eggs circulating in Awka, Anambra State. A total of 400 good-looking, undamaged eggs were randomly selected and bought from different poultry farms in Awka and then, screened for Salmonella Enteritidis. The isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis and antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was done using the standard procedures stated in the bacteriological analytical manual (BAM) of the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI), respectively. Out of 49 (12.3%) isolates positive for Salmonella species, 16 isolates were positive to Salmonella Enteritidis representing 32.7% of the isolated organisms (P>0.05). The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg content and eggshell was 32.7% and 0.0% respectively and the difference in their prevalence was not statistically significant (P<0.05). All isolates showed 100% resistance to augmentin and ceftazidime (zone of inhibition <13mm), ceftriaxone, and erythromycin showed 87.5% resistance (zone of inhibition <35mm). Ninety-three point seven percent (93.7%) of the strains were sensitive to ofloxacin (zone of inhibition >21mm), 75% sensitive to gentamicin (zone of inhibition >15mm) and 50%to cotrimoxazole (zone of inhibition >16mm). The strains studied in terms of their antibiotic-resistant pattern could be classified into different groups based on the number of antibiotics they resisted.  Even though six of the sixteen isolated displayed the presence of plasmid, one can envisage that other non-plasmids containing serovars demonstrating multi-drug resistance attributes have other means of antibiotics resistance other than the plasmid.


Akhtar, F. I., Hussain, A. K. and Rahman, S. U. (2010). Prevalence and antibiogram studies of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from human and poultry sources. Pakistan Veterinary J., 30: 25-28.

Assefa, E., Akafete, T. and Haileleul, N. (2011). The Prevalence and Public Health Importance of Salmonella from Chicken Table Eggs. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 11 (4): 512-518.

Barrow, P. A. and Wallis, T. S. (2000). Salmonella in domestic animals: Vaccination against Salmonella infections in food animals, rational, theoretical basis and tropical application. CABI publishing, U.S.A. Pp: 323-340

Baumler, A. J., Hargis, B. M. and Tsolis, R. M. (2000). Tracing the origins of Salmonella outbreaks. Science, 287: 50 - 52.

Braden, C. R., (2006). Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and eggs: A national epidemic in the United States. Clin Infect Dis, 43:512-517.

Betancor, L., Pereira, M., Martinez, A., Giossa, G., Fookes, M., Flores, K. and Vignoli, R. (2010). Prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Poultry and Eggs in Uruguay during an Epidemic Due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 48: 2413–2423

Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), (2008). Salmonella.

Centers for Disease Control, (2011). CDC Prevention Guidelines Database. Assessed on May, 2012

Cheesbrough, M. (2002). District Laboratory practice in tropical countries: part 2. Low price editions. Cambridge university press, United Kingdom. Pp: 35-143.

De Buck J., Van-Immerseel, F. and Haesebrouck, F. (2004). Colonization of the chicken reproductive tract and egg contamination by Salmonella. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 97: 233–245.

De Jong, B. and Ekdahl, K. (2006). The comparative burden of salmonel¬losis in the European Union member states, associated and candidate countries. Public Health, 6: 4-12

Drew, F. (2010). Food Poison Outbreaks: Eggs and Salmonella, a long lasting public health problem: Salmonella Enteritidis and eggs. Food Poison Journal, 2: 10 - 13

DuPont, H. L., (2011). Cecil Medicine : Approach to the patient with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. 24th ed. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, U.S.A. pp: 291.

Erdğrul, Ö. (2004). Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella Enteritidis in Quail eggs. Vet Anim Sci., 28: 597-601.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/ World Health Organization (FAO), (2002). Risk assessments of Salmonella in eggs and broiler chickens. Accessed on August 2008.

Gast, R. K. and P. S. Holt. (2000). Deposition of phage type 4 and 13a Salmonella Enteritidis strains in the yolk and albumen of eggs laid by experimentally infected hens. Avian Dis., 44: 706-710.

Guard-Petter, J. (2001). The chicken, the egg and Salmonella Enteritidis. Environ Microbiol, 3: 421 – 30.

Herikstad, H., Motarjemi, Y. and Tauxe, R. V. (2002). Salmonella surveillance: a global survey of public health serotyping. Epidemiology Infection, 129:1–8.

Hope, B., Baker, A. and Edel, E. (2002). An overview of the Salmonella Enteritidis risk assessment for shell eggs and egg products. Risk Analysis, 22: 203-217.

Jafari, R. A., Ghorbanpour, M. and Jaideri, A. (2007). An investigation into Sal¬monella infection status in Backyard chickens in Iran. Int J Poult Sci, 6: 227-229.

Jean, S. S. and Hsueh, P. R. (2011). High burden of antimicrobial resistance in Asia. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents; 37: 291–295.

Josh, K. (2010). Eggs Benedictus: Medical Risks.

Kabir, O. A., Werner, P., Wolfgang, B. and Reinhard, B. (2010). Application of phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to analyze Salmonella enterica isolates from a suspected outbreak in Lagos, Nigeria. J Infect Dev, 155: 547-551.

Keller, L. H., Schifferli, D. M., Benson, C. E., Aslam, S. and Eckroade, R. J. (2003). Invasion of chicken reproductive tissues and forming eggs is not unique to Salmonella Enteritidis. Avian Dis, 41: 53- 539.

Marler, C. (2005). Food Borne Illness: Common Bacteria and Viruses that cause food poisoning outbreak. Inc., Seattle, WA; Pp: 1301.

Messen, W., Grijspeert, K. and Herman, L. (2005). Egg penetration by Salmonella: a review. World’s poultry science journal, 61: 71-85.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), (2005). Division of Bacterial Diseases. Accessed on February, 2012

NCCLS (National committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard). (2003). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: 11th Informational Supplement. Approved Standard M2-A7 and M7-A5 National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, PA, USA. http://www.nccls/antibioticsusceptibilitytesting/.

Padmini, S. B. and Appala, B. R. (2008). "Evaluation of CIVA agar for rapid detection of extended spectrum [beta]-lactamases (ESBL) among isolates of Enterobacteriaceae." Indian Journal of Medical Research, 127(2): 195.

Paterson, D. L. and Bonomo, R. A. (2005). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a clinical update. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18: 657–686.

Pitout, J. D. and Laupland, K. B. (2008). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: an emerging public-health concern. Lancet Infect. Dis.; 8: 159–166.

Popoff, M ., Bockemuhl, J. and Gheesling, L. (2004). Supplement 2002 (no. 46) to the Kauffmann-White scheme. Research in Microbiology, 155: 568-570.

Porwollik, S., Boyd, E. F., Choy, C., Cheng, P., Florea, L., Proctor, E. and McClelland, M. (2004). Characterization of Salmonella enterica subspecies I genovars by use of microarrays. Journal of Bacteriology, 186(17): 5883-5898.

Rooney, C. M., Sheppard, A. E., Clark, E., Davies, K., Hubbard, A. T. and Sebra, R. (2009). Dissemination of multiple carbapenem resistance genes in an in vitro gut model simulating the human colon. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 74 :1876–1883.

Roy, P., Dhillon, A. S., Lauerman, L. H., Schaberg, D. M., Bandli, D. and Johnson, S. (2002). Results of Salmonella isolation from poultry products, poultry, poultry environment, and other character¬istics. Avian Dis, 46:17- 24.

Ryan, K. J., and Sherris, C. G. (2001). Medical Microbiology: An Introduction to Infectious Disease. Fourth Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York: 362–8.

Sander, J., Hudson, C. R. and Dufour-Zavala, L. (2001). Dynamics of Salmonella contamination in a commercial Quail operation. Avian Dis, 45:1044-1049.

Soyer Y., Moreno S. A., Davis M. A., Maurer J., Mcdonough P. L., Schoonmaker-Bopp D. J., Dumas N. B., Root T., Warnick L. D., Gröhn Y. T. and Wiedmann M. (2009). Salmonella enterica serotype 4,5, 12:i:-, an emerging Salmonella serotype that represents multiple distinct clones. J. Clin. Microbiol., 47: 3546–3556.

Su, L. H., Chu, C., Cloeckaert, A. and Chiu, C. H. (2005). An epidemic of Plasmids? Dissemination of extended spectrum cephalosporinases among Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceace FEMS. Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 52: 155 – 168.

Thomas, E., Lurdes, C., Manageiro, V., Ferreira, E., Jones-Dias, D., Correia, I., Themudo, P., Albuquerque, T. and Caniça, M. (2012). Occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases among isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica from food-producing animals and food products, in Portugal. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 167(2): 221-228

Tomoeda, M., Inuzuka, M., Kubo, N. and Nakamura, S. (1968). Effective elimination of drug resistance and sex factors in Escherichia coli by sodium dodecyl sulfate. J Bacteriol; 95(3):1078-89. Assessed from

United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). (2007). Bad Bug Book: Salmonella spp.

Wallace, H. A., Jacobson, A. and Hammack, T. (2011). Bacteriological analytical manual (BAM - 8): Salmonella. http://www.bacteriological-anlytical-manual(BAM)- iSalmonella-i.mht

Weill, F. X., Lailler, R., Praud, K., Kerouanton, A., Fabre, L., Brisabois, A., Grimont, P. A. D. and Cloeckaert, A. (2004). Emergence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (CTX- M-9)- producing multiresistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow in poultry and humans in France. J. Clin. Microbiol., 42: 5767– 5773.

Wegener H., Hald, T. and Wong, D. (2003). Salmonella control programs in Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9:774-780.

World Health Organization (WHO), (2008). Food safety measures for eggs and foods containing eggs.

Wray, C. and Wray, A. (2000). Salmonella in Domestic Animals. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.

Yan, S., Pendrak, M. and Abela-Ridder, B. (2003). An overview of Salmonella typing public health perspectives. Clinical and Applied Immunology Reviews. 4:189–204.

How to Cite
ABANA CHIOMA C, & NWAJIOBI FAVOUR O. (2021). Prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Chicken Eggs Collected from Different Poultry Farms in Awka, Anambra State of Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture, Biology & Environment ( E-ISSN 2582-6107 ), 2(2), 1-11.